Things to Know about Prestige Pricing

Prestige pricing examples
Since our childhood we have believed that a commodity which costs more is of better quality than the one which is cheap. Although both of them fulfill the same requirements and are more or less made of similar components, we still tend to go for the one which is expensive.

Perhaps the most crucial part after developing a new product is setting up its price. An organization needs to cover many aspects such as production cost, transportation cost, advertising costs, profit, etc. Of course they expect to generate some profit because of all the hard work they have put in to manufacture that particular product. Price is the value received in exchange of any product or service. Price is certainly one of the most important components out of the four Ps (promotion, product, and place being the others), since this is the only one element which generates revenue and profit for the company.

Organizations that are successful are clever when it comes to creating a persona and brand which helps them stay at the top of the marketing chain. This is possible only when the company is successful in touching the hearts of consumers. Why do you think people go and have dinner at luxury hotels with sky-high prices? Because they believe that the classy ambiance and the fine dining experience is worth their money.

Prestige brands sell their products using premium pricing. The price does not justify the real production cost, but guarantees a feel-good experience to the consumers. They cunningly tap into the consumer’s soft spot, otherwise how can one justify the purchase of a dress, or footwear that is for $3000, when the actual manufacturing cost is $40?

Prestige pricing also known as premium pricing or image pricing is a pricing strategy implemented to pull in status-conscious customers. Charging premium price somehow creates a luxury image in a customer’s mind. There are three reasons why an individual will invest in an expensive product:

1. They think high price means high quality.
2. They want excellent performance (when purchasing a pacemaker).
3. They perceive premium price as a symbol of status.

Objectives of Prestige Pricing

► The main aim of every organization is to generate more and more revenue for their company. This means by setting a high price, they expect to have limited sale but profit is still achievable due to the higher markup on each merchandise.

► To maximize the profit in areas where consumers are willing to pay more, and where they know they hold a monopoly in that segment.

► Prices are kept high because there exist certain barriers while entering the market. The seller fails to save on production expenses because the product is manufactured in small quantities.

► To the producer, it means to create brand equity or an image for which the consumer is ready to shell more. Luxury is an important differentiating factor in a product category.

► Since the seller has the ability to control the amount of commodity sold, it helps the company to gives its products an aura of exclusivity.

► Prestige pricing is also implemented to increase brand identity in a peculiar market. Everybody knows about Mercedes-Benz, Starbucks coffee, etc.

► To justify unique products, such products have the right to be expensive because they can’t be imitated by any company. Pharmaceutical companies often protect their products by using a patent.

► Giving the product an elite and classy look will certainly raise its implied value. If the package alone is beautiful, individuals won’t mind paying premium prices for the product.

Advantages of Prestige Pricing

► Products sold with high prices help to create a good image for the product. Customers receive the impression that the commodity is of excellent quality.

► High price helps the company to get back their investment on research and product development costs.

► Due to prestige pricing, competitors or newly launched products have a difficult time entering the market. Due to increased barriers, the company enjoys their monopoly.

► Apart from good quality, brand value of the merchandise also increases thereby increasing its sales among the consumers.

► Due to premium pricing, company can focus all its interest and energy in manufacturing very limited, but world-class products. This gives them the time to produce quality products.

► For companies like these, the main revenue is profit rather than capturing the entire market’s attention. Their primary goal is to earn as much profit as they can, even if it’s by selling 2 or 3 products.

► Premium pricing leaves a halo effect on products. Consumers crave for more such products based on their features and utility. Take the example of Apple iPhones. Though they are on the expensive side, still more and more people are purchasing them – not to forget iPod and iPad.

► Prestige pricing can help in expanding your business effectively. It is easier to keep in touch with your consumers. You will have enough resources and time to cater to your consumer’s problems, which will keep you head and shoulders above the competitors.

► You can certainly expect loyal consumers for a long period of time. Of course they have the money to spend on your products, that’s why they will be ready to stick by your commodities.

Disadvantages of Prestige Pricing

► It’s not always a bed of roses for the companies. It takes very little time for your competitors to manufacture a good quality product with a low price. They will steal your clients by offering such a finished good.

► Though the main aim is to satisfy smaller portion of the market, but they are always at a risk of losing customers, who are not ready to pay a higher price.

► Due to premium pricing, potential consumers may be lost, who are of the view that the product does not justify the investment.

► Since the companies are not producing and selling low volumes, they lose out on the advantage which a high-volume selling producer gets.

► And if the company decides to reduce the price, then the question of quality comes in a consumer’s mind. Since they are so used to the fact that this particular good costs this much, then why sudden decrease in the price.

► The costs required to set up and follow premium price strategy is huge and has to be maintained till the time this strategy is followed. Otherwise the brand of the company will leave a question mark in the minds of people.

► Prestige pricing is useful for products that produce luxurious goods like cars, watches, restaurants. It is not possible and feasible to charge extra for ordinary commodity goods.

Companies such as Bentley, Chanel, Rolex, Starbucks Coffee, BMW, Mercedes-Benz, etc follow prestige pricing strategy. It is a difficult approach to maintain, and companies that aspire to serve such products often lose on a lot of money.

Understanding the 3 Types of Price Discrimination With Examples

3 types of price discrimination
Price discrimination can be referred to as ‘charging different prices for the same goods or services’. Typically, it is carried out to extract maximum possible surplus from the market and also to increase the volume of sales. Inaugural discounts, concessions on volume, special schemes, etc., are nothing but examples of price discrimination.

Broadly speaking, there are 3 types of price discrimination: First-degree, Second-degree, and Third-degree. Out of these, the third-degree discrimination is more frequently observed/encountered than the others. Nevertheless, there is a limit to such price discrimination, beyond which it can be considered as unhealthy and unethical enough to affect the consumers and, ultimately, the economy. The government, through various mechanisms, tries to restrict such practices.

While, theoretically, we all have encountered such types of price discrimination in our day-to-day lives, let’s delve deeper into the different types with elaborate examples and the economic terms attributed to them.

Types of Price Discrimination

First-degree/Perfect Price Discrimination

Features:

1. The seller can accurately collect information about the consumer―his background, economic class, geographic location, individual preferences, etc.

2. The seller has complete knowledge of the highest price the consumer is willing to pay.

3. The seller enjoys some degree of monopoly in the market.

After gaining information about the customer, the seller sells the product to the highest bid that the consumer is willing to offer. In this way, the firm eats up all the consumer surplus. However, this method of price discrimination is rarely seen, since, it is not possible to collect accurate and authentic information of the consumer. Besides, the seller must be able to enjoy monopoly in the market. Also, the transaction costs involved in gaining information about the customer must be compared with the profits gained by implementing such type of price discrimination. However, we can see in a few examples that it is possible to employ such kind of price discrimination where the seller negotiates for the highest bid. The seller will charge different rates for every unit consumed.

Examples:

Example #1: An ‘Auction’ is said to be an example of first-degree price discrimination. The bidder takes the information of the highest price which they are willing to pay, from the consumer, and accordingly, sells the product to the highest bidder.

Example #2: A practicing lawyer will first gather information from the client about his case, its related background, and then, accordingly charge fees for the same.

Second-degree Discrimination

Features:

1. This type involves charging different prices for different quantities sold.

2. Mostly, these price incentives are offered to encourage consumers to buy more. However, unlike first-degree discrimination, the seller does not have to gather information about his buyers.

3. The seller can charge homogeneous prices for all consumers or a particular group of consumers. With purchase of larger quantities, the prices are reduced.

4. The seller can also target a particular group of people by ‘block pricing’.

5. The seller cannot distinguish his buyers, hence, he offers sorted price ranges for every set of demand. However, he will not be able to extract all the consumer surplus, like first-degree discrimination. But, it is more practical and common than first-degree discrimination.

Examples:

Example #1: A classic example is electrical power cost. Households are charged a lesser price per unit power consumed, simply because they consume lesser power than commercial users.

Example #2: Quantity discounts offered at super markets―they offer discounts to consumers on quantity―to encourage bulk purchases. Don’t we all pick up goods in bulk just to avail heavy discounts on bulk purchases?

Example #3: Various industries charge different rates at various time periods―a very common phenomenon in the entertainment and transport industry. Commercial airlines, sometimes, offer concessions for early booking, or movie tickets are costlier on weekends and holidays than other days.

Third-degree Discrimination

Features:

1. This is the most common type of price discrimination, that we come across in our daily lives. In this type, the seller simply charges different prices to different sets of consumers, after distinguishing them on the basis of their age, gender, location, occupation, or any other special characteristic.

2. Their demand must be elastic and the markets must be classifiable into various segments.

3. The seller must be able to prevent ‘resale’ of his products―there must be no selling between two markets―where he sells at a lesser price, and the buyers sell them at higher price to others.

Examples:

Example #1: Discrimination on the basis of age.

– Travel concessions for senior citizens in public transport
– Recreational places, such as amusement parks, zoos, etc., where kids are charged lesser prices.

Example #2: Discrimination on the basis of gender.

– Hair/Nail Salons: Some salons charge different prices for men and women (for instance, haircuts, where it can be argued that women having longer hair than men, and require more styling)
– In some nations, where women are deprived of education, concessions are provided to encourage them to continue their education.
– Some bars sponsor ‘ladies night’; where beverages are sold at discounts or free of cost, to women only.

However, many are of the opinion that such kind of price discrimination on the basis of gender is biased and sexist in nature.

Example #3: Discrimination on the basis of occupation.

– Canteen concessions to staff, free parking facilities, etc.
– Some nations offer concessions to defense personnel, such as concessional medical facilities, education to their children, etc.

Example #4: Discrimination on the basis of quality of service/facilities.

– Different prices charged for the business and economy class by commercial airlines
– Hospitality and hotel industry charges different tariff according to the facilities provided―air-conditioning, number of beds, etc. Luxury and elite rooms are charged higher than the normal rooms.

Something to Ponder!

Today, the online shopping world is growing by leaps and bounds. Sitting in the comfort of your home, you can shop almost anything, anywhere! In the virtual world, the buyer and seller do not meet, and the distance is just a click away. However, that does not mean the virtual marketplace is devoid of price discrimination!

Online sellers display different prices on the basis of location, competition in the market, demand, related costs etc., with the use of software tools available today. Sellers try to analyze how much they can charge a consumer, on the basis of various criteria (as explained in first-degree price discrimination). Of course, these are estimates, and prone to errors.

Whether such kind of price discrimination is healthy is a question of debate. Pricing must adhere to statutory requirements, yet, with the growing Internet market, such kind of pricing policies no longer remain a surprise.

A good advice to consumers would be to be aware of the market prices and compare them with other markets too. Nonetheless, it would always be beneficial to do some research and make a wise and informed decision.

Psychological Pricing Strategy

Psychological pricing or odd price strategy was introduced as a means of marketing, way back in the early 1900s. It is a pricing strategy that helps create a positive psychological impact on buyers and tempts them to purchase a product. One of the oldest proponents of psychological pricing happens to be Tomas Bata, the world-renowned shoe manufacturer. The strategy was widely used by Wal-Mart and Chicago Daily to deal with cut throat competition in the market at the time of their respective introductions. Let us now understand the basic principles of psychological pricing.

Pricing Strategies

Customer Psychology: The demand theory of economics rightly assumes that an average customer makes his buying decision by thinking rationally. However, this pricing strategy is designed to make an average customer buy a certain product by playing with his emotions. In majority of psychological pricing cases, the customer fails to think rationally before finalizing his purchases. And not to forget, these very customers take pride for finding a cheaper deal!

Five Dollar Benefit: To help you understand this situation better, I will give you an example. Let us assume that two competing brands of cars named A and B are priced at $13,995 and $14,000 respectively. The price of car A is lower than that of car B by a mere $5. However, if the price is rounded off, both the cars are actually equally priced. Here we see that the manufacturer of car A is using the psychological pricing strategy. An average buyer fails to think rationally under such circumstances. Instead of rounding off the price to $14000, he tends to round it off to $13000. Here, the seller plays with buyer’s mind by displaying 13000 prominently in the price.

Using Superscripts: Another pricing variation is to display prices with the use of superscript. Here is an illustration to make this concept better. A pizza at a restaurant costs $5. However, the restaurant displays the price as $499! Interesting, isn’t it? Most of the customers look at $4 but fail to notice the remaining 0.99 cents. This variation is also used for quoting gasoline prices in the US.

Hidden Conditions: A number of business units around the world lure customers into their outlets by displaying product prices exclusive of taxes. There is of course, a tiny asterisk in the corner stating this fact. But the asterisk and its corresponding declaration is in a fine print. The customer realizes the ultimate price of the product much later.

The Number Play: A typical pricing strategy involves usage of specific numerals for product prices. A research conducted by Marketing Bulletin found out that numerals 9 and 5 were most commonly used in psychological pricing. E.g. A product worth $100 might be sold with a price tag of $99 or $95 or $99.99. As far as psychological pricing is concerned, the usage and popularity of numerals 9 and 5 stand at 60% and 30% respectively. The numeral 0 follows close on the heels of numerals 9 and 5. It is used in approximately 8% of psychological pricing strategies. The rest of the numerals are used only in 2% instances of psychological pricing.

Why is Psychological Pricing Used?

– One of the main motives behind use of this marketing strategy is to play with the buyer’s emotions and make him believe that he is paying lesser than the regular price. And it is a fact that some of the most rational and price-conscious customers fall for this strategy.
– By fixing an odd price for the product, the manufacturers can make the buyers feel that the products are sold at the most honest and lowest possible prices. On the other hand, customers have a tendency to assume that goods with rounded up prices have a huge profit margin.
– This strategy is assumed to help manufacturers or storekeepers keep a control over cash thefts. The assumption is made on the principle that cashiers are likely to steal some cash if customers pay the rounded off amount for their purchases. However, cashiers are forced to record a sale in their cash register if the amount is odd. This is because customers mostly pay a round sum for an odd priced product and expect to get the change back from the cashiers.

Marketing experts around the world have voted this pricing strategy to be one of the most successful ones. The advantage of using it, is that it does not require any kind of monetary expenditure from the manufacturer’s side. There are plenty of industries or organizations around the world that have adopted this strategy for years together albeit with a slight variation to suit their individual requirements.

Penetration Pricing Strategy

The mention of penetration pricing strategy always manages to raise eyebrows. Admirable in some cases; cheeky and underhand, otherwise. The intent of penetration pricing is honorable, of course. It simply aims at boosting the market share of an established product or capturing customers in case of a new launch by underpricing it. Implementing this strategy is akin to playing with fire, as a few dubious qualities associated with it can create unnecessary problems for any company.

Advantages of Penetration Pricing

Does penetration pricing work? It definitely does, and it succeeds in taking your rivals completely by surprise, giving them no time to recover from your onslaught. If your sales pick up, thanks to word-of-mouth publicity, nothing else could be better.

1. Penetration price strategy is implemented with the sole intention of spreading your presence in the market. It is an appropriate marketing tool which creates a loyalty base for your product.
2. Deliberate underpricing is suitable for average quality products and new products under automobiles, computer accessories or cosmetics. It also works well for commodities with a shorter shelf life, such as consumable items. The distributors and retailers have reasons to cheer as penetration pricing effectively accelerates the turnover.
3. The low cost manages to generate an interest, especially among those looking to snag a bargain. After this, it is up to the product to impress the consumer. If it gets an approval from the consumer, the company can think of gradually increasing the cost and rake in actual profits.
4. It results in startling your competitors, more so if the product segment is overflowing with options for the consumer. If a rival product is looking to enter the market, your penetration pricing strategy will arrest it by grabbing a lion’s share in consumer preference. It puts your product in a vantage position to establish a firm hold in its arena.
5. There are also instances where companies have managed to pocket some profit despite using this strategy. The trick used here works on products that need add-ons to function. Cheap razors that need expensive cartridges or low cost printers, which function on outrageous refills illustrate this point.
6. When a product is placed in the market at an attractive “introductory price”, consumers expect a price rise in the near future, and sometimes decide to stock up on it, thus fulfilling the purpose of penetrative pricing. Mind you, this is only possible in cases of products launched by recognized brands.

Examples: Automobiles, computer accessories, food supplies, cosmetics, etc.

Disadvantages of Penetration Pricing

The catch here is that penetrative pricing works best with products that are in demand. Just think – would consumers care any less if a new, low-priced doorknob was launched in the market? Certainly not, thus rendering it incompatible with several products.

1. A company has to forgo all hopes about making any profit in the short term. The low entry price puts to rest all chances of earning revenues. Further, if the consumer parameters are not fulfilled, the company may have to kiss the product goodbye.
2. Having thrust your product into the market with an obscenely low price, expect several hurdles when you eventually decide to hike the cost. While a price increase is inevitable, doing so may result in the consumers turning their backs to your product.
3. Consumers looking for a cheap deal often fall prey to penetration pricing. You could be missing out on your target consumers, which is not a good sign for any product looking to establish itself in the market.
4. The price is not the only factor that a consumer has in mind while buying a new product. In fact, a whole breed of consumers equate premium quality with high prices. It would be inappropriate to implement this strategy on products in the niche segment.
5. This strategy can horribly backfire if your rivals decide to join the bandwagon and lower their product prices further, triggering a price war. This can have a disastrous end, with all offenders involved having to do some serious damage control.
6. Predatory pricing is a cruel variant of penetration pricing. This is when a company prices its product abysmally low, demolishes all traces of competition, and finally creates a monopoly. Reason enough for some countries to deem this practice illegal.

Examples: Luxury products, high-end automobiles and gadgets, limited-edition products, etc.

It is impossible to remove the crookedness out of penetration pricing. This strategy stands on the premise of elbowing out competition, straying on to unethical territories at times. However, there is no doubt about its success rate and its practicality, more so in the consumer packaged goods market.

Skimming Pricing Strategy

We all know what price means in terms of commercial goods and services – it is the value we pay in exchange for receiving such goods and services. On the consumer’s side, the process of such a receipt of goods/services in exchange of a price paid is what we know as purchase or buying. On the manufacturer’s/service provider’s/seller’s side, the process of parting with such goods/services in exchange for the price received is known as sale or selling. Have you ever wondered on what basis the prices of commercial goods and services are fixed? Well, the price is the sum total of all the costs incurred in producing/procuring the goods/services plus a profit percentage which can be calculated either on the cost price or the selling price.

What is Market Skimming Policy?
As the name suggests, the market skimming strategy seeks to skim away or churn out all those customers from the market who are willing to pay a higher price just to get access to the marketer’s products or services before anyone else does. This customer segment is considered as the creme-de-la-creme, the premium segment that has a very high consumer’s surplus in terms of their demand for the product or service and are willing to pay a higher price for outstripping their contemporaries in owning such a product. Market skimming is a variant of discriminatory pricing strategy. The strategy of market skimming is to charge a higher price for a product during its initial launch in the market. Once the premium paying customer segment has been optimally exploited, the price of the product is, then, gradually lowered in order to exploit the other, lower paying consumer segments.

Adopting a skimming pricing strategy is a good way for firms, that have incurred sunk costs, to recover these before competitors enter the market and target the common customer segment. This way, while the competitors are busy planning and manufacturing similar and alternative products and services, the original marketer churns the profits out of the premium paying market segment. Sometimes, the reverse of this happens. Sometimes, when a company launches a new, novelty product/service range at a high price, the entrance of competitors soon after compels it to lower its prices to survive competition and remain in the market.

Besides recovering sunk costs, another reason for following a skimming pricing strategy is to cover up for the product life cycle by earning excess in the initial stages of the product life cycle to cover up for the stagnating market demands during its maturity stage.

Examples of Market Skimming Strategy
Most prominent instances of market skimming can be seen in the electronics and computer technology markets because upgrades come up every 6-8 months, pushing previous technology versions towards the maturity stage of the product life cycle. One such prominent example is the Sony PlayStation 3. When launched, it was priced approximately USD 600 but these days, it is available at around USD 300. Laptops and mobile phone handsets are other prominent examples of market skimming.

Advantages
Skimming strategy may be profitable in the following instances:-

– The R&D costs involved in an innovative product or technology tends to be very high. Skimming serves to recover such cost before competitors get a chance to barge in on the scene.
– Once the cream customer segment is optimally exploited, the product gets established in the market. Also, being the first to introduce such a product to the market, the market skimmer becomes the market leader in that product/service.
– Skimming often helps the marketer to identify different segments for future discriminatory pricing.
– High prices mean high dealer markups and following a skimming strategy may be beneficial where third-party distributors and dealers are involved. This creates a win-win situation for both the supplier as well as the dealer.

Limitations
Following are the limitations of this pricing strategy:-

– Products for whom a shift in price results in a shift in demand should not be priced under market skimming strategy as higher prices would mean lesser buyers.
– Discriminatory pricing is subject to many legal implications and as such, a marketer considering using this pricing strategy must make sure he is doing so within the scope of law.
– Stock clearance may become a problem as the premium paying segment is usually always smaller than the mainstream/lower paying segments. Manufacturers must keep this in mind while planning production volume.
– A high-priced market entrant is more likely than others to attract competitors sooner. This is due to the fact that competitors would be tempted to earn high margins as well.
– Subsequent lowering of price may tarnish the premium image of the product and marketer and people may view such a price switch as evidence of lowering of quality standards.

Types of Pricing Strategy
As mentioned previously, the price is the sum total of all the costs incurred in producing/procuring the goods/services plus a profit percentage which can be calculated either on the cost price or the selling price. Besides these, a lot of other economic and financial considerations also go into pricing such as consumer’s surplus, indifference curve analysis, margins claimed by the channels of distribution, etc. There are, in totality, eighteen types of prices and pricing strategies:-

1. Competitive Pricing
2. Cost-plus Pricing
3. Market Skimming
4. Loss Leader Pricing
5. Limit Pricing
6. Penetrative Pricing
7. Market-oriented Pricing
8. Contribution-margin-based Pricing
9. Predatory Pricing
10. Flexible Pricing
11. Psychological Pricing
12. Target Pricing
13. Leadership Pricing
14. Marginal Cost Pricing
15. High-low pricing
16. Absorption Pricing
17. Premium Pricing
18. Discriminatory Pricing

Like any other micro-economic policy, the various policies and strategies of pricing have various justifications and different benefits and limitations. What pricing strategy one marketer chooses may differ from others based upon the product/service he offers, the life cycle of such product and service and the frequency of upgrades that occur in that product segment.

What is Price Gouging?

The simple and straight definition of this concept is pricing and selling at a price level, that is substantially higher than the fair price level.

Price Fixation and Cost Fixation

The concept of market is made up 4 important factions. Firstly, there is the product or the commodity that is sold by the supplier/producer. Next, there is the supply, that is number of units that are supplied into the market. Third, there is the demand for the supplied commodity or unit, which is of course backed by the ability of the consumer to pay for the same. Last, there is the price of the product.

There are two basic ways in which price of any commodity is ascertained.

– Costing is the primary, or initial method with the help of which price is set. Costing is a technique where the price of the commodity/product is derived at the factory level. In such a case, cost of production plus overheads, plus taxes, plus transportation cost, plus profit margin, determine the cost of the commodity.
– Once this commodity enters the market, a certain demand for it gets generated. The basic rule of thumb that is observed is that more the demand, for lesser units, the more is the price of the commodity. The less the demand the lesser the price. The same principle works the other way round also. That is, the more the units supplied, the less is the cost, and the less the supply the greater is the price. This principle is known as the demand and supply analysis.

Now, based upon these two principles, the suppliers/producers can also manipulate and escalate, or even inflate, the price levels in an unethical manner. Here’s an explanation on how it is done, or why it is deemed to be unethical.

About Price Gouging

All of us have heard of gouging of gas price. In this phenomenon, the actual calculated cost price of gas is much lower, and the price for which it is sold is much higher. Now, the unethical part comes in where sellers, increase their profit margin, overprice their production cost and finally send lesser units into the market.

In such instances the price escalates, drastically, or unnaturally. A method which escalate the prices, which is commonly used, is where the number of units sent into the market is very less and at the same time, a substantial number of units that are sold are stored away, creating a higher demand, boosting the price levels. When the levels go up, the stored away units are sold off. This phenomenon is known as artificial scarcity.

The gouging phenomena comes under the scanner of governments, when the general public gets affected by it. Auctions, costly and luxury goods, cannot be deemed to have gouging effects. However, fuel, medicines, food, clothing and other things that are required to survive, or even live properly, cannot be priced over a certain limit. If the prices exceed the fair price, then anti-gouging policies are adopted by the government. Gouging of prices is a felony in some nations and states.

Gouging of prices is something that is to be frowned upon, as it is almost as good as robbing of basic needs. Socialist and communist nations deal with such phenomena in a very harsh manner. There are some basic necessities of every human being on which a price tag cannot be added on, simple things like water or air or medicines or even a few morsels of food, are not be sold or measured in monetary terms, they are to be shared properly, and justly by all humanity.

What Does a Pricing Analyst Do?

Pricing a product, commodity or service is a specialized skill. The job of a pricing analyst is to understand market conditions perfectly and help in deciding product prices. In today’s competitive business world, pricing your product correctly has become very important to outdo competitors. The interviews for these jobs are tough, as companies prefer to recruit top talent for such jobs.

Job Description of a Pricing Analyst

Pricing analysts help in deciding the prices of the products of a company for which they work. For this, they have to consider many factors such as the nature of the product, prices of goods of competitor companies, and the paying ability of the consumers. These analysts have to find out how much a consumer is willing to pay and what service he expects by conducting intensive research.

He has to determine or find out which are those products, for which the consumers are willing to pay a higher price and what are the exact reasons for that. They need to be aware of price trends prevailing in the market. For the purpose of research, they also refer to historical prices and data about the prices of commodities under different market conditions, to arrive at correct conclusions. They work closely with the marketing team of the company.

Educational Qualifications

For becoming a pricing analyst, you ideally need to have a college degree in subjects such as mathematics, economics, marketing or statistics. With the help of a degree in these fields, you will be able to enter this field quite easily. The institute from where you complete your course matters a lot when it comes to securing the best jobs in the industry.

With a master’s or doctoral degree in the above subjects, you can get the most coveted jobs in this field. Most of these professionals are management graduates and post graduates from reputed universities. A good knowledge of accounting, price trends, and effective communication skills can make you a successful pricing analyst.

Expected Salary

The salary of pricing analysts largely depends on their educational qualifications, years of practical experience, job location, and type of employer. The ones working for top-notch companies in the financial services, production, and manufacturing sectors can expect to earn a better salary than those working for the smaller companies. The salaries are much higher in the cities, as compared to the rural areas. As per various salary surveys, the median salary for a pricing analyst is around USD 52,000 per year. On the whole, most of them earn between USD 42,000 to USD 55,000 per year. You can definitely earn more than this amount if you have the relevant work experience and have worked on large projects successfully.

Break Even Analysis Formulas

What does breaking even mean? The break even point is where the total revenue on a product/service is equal to the total cost incurred. Let me explain this concept with the help of a simple example. Suppose it takes $10 to make a chocolate cake, the price at which the cake business will break even will be at $10. Simply put, it’s the point where the cost of manufacturing = selling price.

In terms of pricing, the break even point shows the no-profit-no-loss position. So if you decide to price your product below the point, then you will incur a loss. On the other hand, if you price your product above the break even point, you will earn a profit. Thus, the break even point is very crucial as in a way, it helps form one of the important bases of product pricing. It also helps you decide if the product is worth manufacturing. For example, if it takes $100 to manufacture a product, but your market research suggests that the people aren’t ready to pay a cent over $56, you know that unless you can somehow achieve a breakthrough decrease in the price over a period of time, there is going to be no point in trying to sell such a commodity.

Break Even Calculation

Before we try to calculate it, we should know the meaning of some terms that are included in the formulas.

Fixed Costs: For running your business, there are some costs that you will incur, irrespective of your productive capacity. Some charges such as rent, depreciation of machinery, etc, you incur, whether you produce or not. Such costs are called fixed costs. As long as the productive capacity stays between a particular range, (example: unless you have to double the production area and therefore, rent) that cost will remain the same.
Variable Costs: There are other costs that will vary according to production, such as wages, cost of purchases, etc. Variable costs of production will change as you increase (or decrease) your production.
Price: Well, we all really know what price means, but just to be sure, price is the monetary value realized by your product. It is the amount of money that the product commands in the market.
Volume: Volume is the total number of products produced.

Now that we know all the associated terms, let us go back to the meaning of break-even point. The break even point is where total costs and the total price is the same. So using this as the basis for the derivation, let us now derive the analysis formula.

Total Cost = Total Revenue

Expanding this, we say that the total cost will be the sum of the fixed component and the variable component per unit produced. Total revenue on the other hand will be equal to the price of one unit multiplied by the number of units sold. Hence, we get the break even analysis formula.

(Variable Costs per unit * number of units) + Total Fixed Cost = Price per unit * number of units.

Another required calculation is how much volume you will need to sell in order to break even. Its volume is given by the below given formula.

Break even point = Fixed Costs / (Price per unit – Variable Costs per unit)

The other consideration in the analysis is the amount of time it will take for you to break even. For that you will need to define a certain time-period. Say, you want to know how many months it will take you to break even, then the period will be defined in months.

Break even period = Break even volume / sales per period (per month)

But the thing to keep in mind while you do your break even analysis is that this point is just one consideration. Many businesses, like the airline business, have long gestation periods and it may be years till they can recover the money they have invested.

But that doesn’t necessarily mean no one in America is starting airlines. In the long run, there are chances that you may make exponential profits in some businesses, if you are willing to suck up a few years of losses.